#### Today, with advancement in technology, the dependency on computers and technologies like AI, ML, cryptography, etc. is increasing. But what if I told you a better alternative to them is quantum computing? Quantum computing is the technology that works on the concepts of physics such as quantum mechanics, electromagnetism, condensed matter physics and optics. People enjoy movies such as “Sneakers” or “Live Free or Die Hard” where, we find characters hacking or sneaking into banks or other infrastructures made by the government. Whereas, in real life, we trust our government enough that such a threat to the money or even the infrastructure cannot happen. In today’s technology-based world, where cybercrimes are rapidly increasing, how does the government manage to protect from such situations? They use the concept of quantum computing, with general AI and other technologies working with bits such as 0 or 1, quantum computing often does not hold just one bit value. In quantum computing, it has a linear combination holding 0 and 1, and during logging, it takes all the values lying between them. This effect is popularly known as superposition.

#### One of the other principles that quantum computing works with is entanglement. Entanglement means that a single qubit (quantum bit) state that is directly related to another qubit, no matter the distance that separates them. Quantum computing operates not only on superpositions but also with some gates that are not very commonly used in other methods of computing. The one that finds most usage is the Pauli X-gate, also known as a quantum NOT gate. It changes the state of the qubit, the way a normal gate would function. It uses a Hadamard gate that takes any basis state and gives a state of superposition. It also makes use of other gates like the control-NOT gate, which flips the second bit and the first qubit in the same state. “Creativity is seeing what others see and thinking what no one else ever thought”-a famous quote by Albert Einstein, that tells us about thinking out of the box. Little did he know that the concepts of physics would be applied to computing eventually, and a whole new world of computing using physics concepts would be introduced.

#### So, exactly how did the history of the people get into quantum computing? The first on the list is Richard Feynman. In 1981, he was the first to propose quantum systems to perform computation, which was formed based on underpinning quantum computing. And slowly, this concept rose in people's minds, and they wanted to dive deeper into this. So, in 1985, David Dukes discovered the requirements of universal quantum computing and sketched out the theoretical model. Then, in 1994, Peter Shor designed an efficient algorithm for factoring large numbers that was much stronger than the classical algorithm. This gave the push to come over the classical theories and find the modern theories that dive deep into the thinking and reality of mechanics, physics, and computing.

#### In 1996, Love Grover designed a Grover's algorithm, whereby database searching became quadric ally faster than the classical algorithm. And with such advancing, IBM and Stanford University collaborated to achieve successful implementation of Shor’s factoring algorithm on seven-qubit quantum computing. The trend increasing in quantum computing, other companies also started to analyse its concepts to build theories Speaking about prospects and considering how the method is currently working, one can point out high investment and rapid evolvement. Part of the challenges it currently faces includes coherence time for a qubit and quantum error correction. As such, it is a matter of too much technological advancement and, besides, it has to do with the investment parameters. That scalability issue is also one of the main highlighted issues that make quantum systems scalable while obtaining qubit quality.

#### Other computer technologies are not that advanced as quantum computing could be. The practical application of this technology is wide-scaled to innumerable places where quantum computers can provide significant advantages over other computers. At the times When the classical concepts of physics were introduced, we did not know that the concept of energy is different when talking about the scale of an electron. But when Einstein came and gave his well-known equation of E = mc2, the concepts totally changed. All of us discovered that the concept of physics applied in real life is different from the quantum life. Similarly, we know that the quantum concepts of computing are much more advanced and, if brought into real-life usage, this can create an evolution of technological advancement. In conclusion, quantum computing has advantages that promise to revolutionize various fields and industries. It has capabilities to advance in fields such as cryptography, through more secure encryption methods, and drug discovery, by simulating molecular interactions with accuracy and many more. Quantum computing's potential to improve financial modelling, and artificial intelligence algorithms will lead to more efficient and intelligent systems. As research progresses and technological innovations are introduced, the impact of quantum computing will become more evident, drive innovation and opening new gates in science and technology.

**Author - Smriti Aggarwal**

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